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Since the majority of African countries have high fertility rates relative to the rest of the world, it is clear that most African countries have not undergone a demographic transition. In other parts of the world, there is evidence that economic growth increases after a country undergoes demographic transition.

Although other improvements in public health are necessary to fully undergo a demographic transition, it can not occur without family planning. It is unclear, however, how exactly the demographic transition will affect society in sub-Saharan Africa. An economic downside to using birth control to limit fertility is the possibility that parents will not having enough successful, living offspring to support them financially in old age.

This is a significant concern among parents. The United Nations created the "Every Woman Every Child" initiative to assess the progress toward meeting women's contraceptive needs and modern family planning services. One of the Millennium Development Goals is improving maternal health.


In the traditional northern Ghana society, payment of bridewealth in cows and sheep signifies the wife's obligation to bear children. Physical abuse and reprisals from the extended family pose substantial threats to women. However, most people in Africa today live in urban areas or agricultural communities with private land ownership. In these communities, having a family that is larger than one can support is viewed negatively.


Private landowners do not need to rely on financial support from children in old age or in crises because they can sell their land. Despite these changes Boserup suggests that large families are still seen as symbols of wealth and higher social status by men. In the cities of Nairobi and Bungoma in Kenya , major barriers to contraceptive use included lack of agreement on contraceptive use and on reproductive intentions.

There were also gaps in knowledge on contraceptive methods, fears from rumors, misconceptions about specific methods, perceived undesirable effects and availability and poor quality of services in the areas studied. Compared to Ghana , the man is considered the decision maker.

The husband has a greater desire for more children, preferably sons, because they are able to provide financial security for their parents. In other Sub-Saharan African cultures, spousal discussion of sexual matters is discouraged. Friends of family and in-laws are used between partners for them to exchange ideas and issues pertaining to this matter. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. No data.

World Bank. Retrieved 21 October Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Retrieved Ezeh; Tom O.

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Fertility and child mortality in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana.

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    Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and other First Nations people are advised that this catalogue contains names, recordings and images of deceased people and other content that may be culturally sensitive. Book , Online - Google Books. However, in Cote d'Ivoire, income, assets and mother's height are positively related to fertility, while in Ghana they are associated with lower fertility. These results suggest that Ghana is farther along in its fertility transition than is Cote d'Ivoire.

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    Female education has a smaller effect on child mortality in Cote d'Ivoire, where relatively fewer women are educated, than in Ghana. Community characteristics explained only a small fraction of child mortality. However, the community's average experience of child mortality is still an important predictor of the household's child mortality, suggesting that there remain unobserved community factors that lower child mortality in the two countries.

    Future research may uncover some of these factors and demonstrate how public policy interventions can moderate them. There was only weak statistical support for treating child mortality at the household level as endogenous to the process determining fertility. When child mortality is treated as an exogenous variable, these estimates indicate that a reduction of five child deaths would lead to a decrease in fertility of one birth. Further development of women's education in both countries is likely to play a significant role in bringing child mortality under control and slowing population growth.

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