Spitantike Stempelkeramik," Kilbler, K. Kiibler, "ZumFormwandelin der spiiatantiken pp.
Berichtiber die Ausgrabungen of Excavationin Samothrace," A. Loeschcke, S. Noll, R.
IX Megalithique Pauphilet,D. Flinders, see RomanEhnasya Pfuhl, E. Davidsonand D.
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Priene: Th. Wiegand and H. R6mische R6m. Sammlungtrojanischer und byzantinischer Schneider,A. Sammlung von Aulock: Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum. Tarbell, Catalogueof Bronzes, etc.
I: The Hellenistic and Roman Periods, ed. Petersburg, Ermitage. Wulff and W. Volbach, Die altchristlichen und mittelalterlichen und byzantinischen italienischen Berlin and Leipzig, Bildwerke, Wycherley,R. The archetype is the model, usually solid, from which the first generationmouldsare taken. First generationmoulds: moulds taken from the archetype. First generationlamps: lamps made from first generationmoulds. Sub-archetype: term has been added to Nicholl'sdefinitions. This Second generationmoulds: moulds taken from first generationlamps or sub-archetypes.
There may be as of mouldsand lamps. Related: all the membersof a series are "related"to each other, in the sense of derivingultimately from a commonarchetypethroughmechanicalmeans of reproduction. Derivative: "as regardsthe componentsof a series, all save the first generationmay be from any workshop and of any clay or fabric. These subsequentgenerationswe may term 'derivative. One workshopmay make many differenttypes. A single type may have a wide range in time and in fabric. Dates are to be understoodas of the Christianera unless otherwiseindicated.
In the citation of unpublishedlamps from the Kerameikosand from Corinththe followingreferences are used: Inventoriedlamps from the Kerameikosare referredto by KL number. Unnumbered lamps are cited as of Institute Kerameikoslamps, or by the negative number the GermanArchaeological photograph Inst. For Corinth,the Corinthinventorynumber CL is given; for the few lamps fromCheliotomylos, Corinth, the Cheliotomniylos inventory numberis cited.
A few unpublishedlamps from R. Young's excavationson MountHymettos in are referredto as Hymettos lamps.
CharacteristicallyRoman lamps do not appear in Athens before Augustan times; they continue in use, so far as is now known, down to the borders of the dark ages. Around lamps falling within these chronologicallimits are recordedin the Agora Inventory. In consideringthe proportion of lamps of different periods or styles representedit is well to recall that the inventory has been selective.
Complete examples have ordinarilybeen inventoried rather than fragments from a given deposit; yet in the case of rare or unusual varieties, and especially of imported lamps, small pieces have often been thought worthy of individual record. A further unbalance occurs between lamps of a sturdy and almost indestructible fabric and those whose lightness and delicacy no doubt attracted the purchaserin antiquity much as they attract the student today, but which made them poorly adapted to survive the hazards either of daily life or of excavation. Within these limitations, however, the Agora inventory of lamps appears to present a fair cross section of the varieties in use.
This fact is confirmedby the examination of the containers of context pottery preservedin the Agora uninventoried storage; many thousands of lamps and lamp fragments may be found there, but since, once examined, they have appearedto add nothing of significanceto the present study no effort has been made to include them. Inventoried items, however, though of no great intrinsic interest frequently come from closely dated deposits; they can assist in dating other deposits in Athens or elsewhere and in the dating of objects of other classes found with them.
Some such pieces will one day contribute to the study of the Attic shops when that can be carried further than is as yet possible; others have been published earlier and are listed here under the revised classification. For such items an abbreviated form of catalogue entry has been adopted, but for future convenience in reference each lamp has been assigned a publication number.
Small Objects from the Pnyx I (Hesperia Supplement vol 7)
Thus a lamp may be described as an Attic lamp of the first half of the 4th century or as an imported lamp of the late 1st to early 2nd century. Where closer identification is possible it is given, as for instance an Italian lamp of the late 1st century s. The system is intended to be flexible and comprehensive enough for use not only in Athens but also at other sites in Greece and in the Aegean area and to prepare the way for a unified terminology for studies of lamps.
The main line of division is between Attic lamps and imported lamps; no study of influences from abroad, changes of style or development of shapes in Attic lamps can proceed until the Agora, VI. Grandjouan, Athenian. Because Attic clay varies greatly according to clay beds and firing conditions and because there is also a bewildering variety of foreign wares, there are many cases in which it is difficult to identify Attic ware with certainty.
This is especially true of lamps of the 5th and 6th centuries where there is often only one of a kind and insufficient related material for comparison. The lamps for which Attic manufacture is possible but not certain have been placed among imported wares with an indication that the lamp may be Attic. By excluding the uncertain lamps, the picture of Attic production becomes clearer though possibly less complete. Imported lamps are presented in chronological order.
Corinthian, red-on-white and North African wares are sufficiently well identified to be grouped by fabric; but no attempt has been made to discriminate between the other wares, some of which, however, are tentatively identified in the catalogue. The imported lamps are often subdivided by shape; for example, lamps of the late 1st century B. These subdivisions by shape are conventionally convenient and are not intended to be understood as "types.
The imported lamps in Athens, however, come from a great many different sources of manufacture, each with its own history of development; their sequences require detailed study on home territory before the mixture of shapes found in Athens can be fully understood.
Imported shapes, moreover, did not necessarily enter Athens in the order in which they developed; imports on a small scale are frequently haphazard. Locally made lamps can be grouped with greater confidencebecause of the much larger body of material. The first group includes those lamps of the late 1st century s. In the catalogue they are grouped according to representation or pattern on the disk.
THE Athenian Agora: Lamps OF
The emphasis in the catalogue is on the subjects shown and the monuments in other fields of art from which much of the Attic lamp repertoryis derived. In the text, pp. Waage, A. It is this evolutionary treatment which has made the works of Loeschcke and Broneer such cornerstones of lychnology. Shape B might have been imported at an earlier date than shape A, or at the same time, or after the appearance of shape A. Indeed the two shapes could have entered Athens more than once, coming from Italy or the Aegean area at different times.
SExcavation deposits frequently illustrate this fact but it is most clearly seen in the case of wasters. For contemporary types see the following: Walters is a waster consisting of one lamp with volute-nozzle, one withU-shaped nozzle and one with heart-shapednozzle; Loeschcke, p. Sammlung Sabourofi, I, pl. LXXV, shows three Hellenistic lamps of three quite different types set into a framework with a palmette handle-shield.